2020 is a year of continuous technological progress in quantum computing, and technology giants are vying to seize the highest point of quantum computing, "quantum hegemony." And the recent speech by General Secretary Xi Jinping in the collective study of the Politburo of the Central Committee on October 16 has also attracted more attention to quantum computing. In order to facilitate readers to better understand the current global quantum computing industry, we will also review the world-renowned technology giants and start-ups in the quantum computing field through a series of articles.
Following the introduction of world-renowned companies in the field of quantum computing in the last issue (click on the link to read the article " Quantum Computing Is Pushed to the Top, What Are the International Players Doing on This Track? " ), let's continue to sort out the players on the domestic track.
Alibaba is the earliest enterprise that started quantum research in China. In 2015, it began to deploy quantum computing and jointly established a laboratory with the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
At the Shenzhen Yunqi Conference in March 2017, Alibaba Cloud announced the world's first case of quantum encrypted communication on the cloud. In May , the world's first optical quantum computer that surpassed the early classical computers was born in collaboration with the University of Science and Technology of China, the Chinese Academy of Sciences- Alibaba Quantum Computing Laboratory, Zhejiang University, and the Institute of Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. In September, Alibaba founded the Dharma Institute , a cutting-edge and basic scientific research institution , with quantum computing as one of its core research directions. The head of the quantum laboratory is Shi Yaoyun, a former University of Michigan professor. In the same year, the quantum cloud platform jointly built by Alibaba and the Chinese Academy of Sciences was launched.
In early 2018, Hungarian computer scientist Mario Szegedy joined Alibaba Dharma Academy. In the same year, the quantum circuit simulator "Tai Zhang" developed in the laboratory successfully simulated the 81-bit 40-layer Google random quantum circuit as the benchmark in the world.
In September 2019, the laboratory completed the research and development of the first controllable qubit.
In March of this year, Alibaba Dharma Academy launched the Nanhu project with a total investment of about 20 billion yuan. The main research direction includes quantum computing. In June, Alibaba's innovative research plan AIR included the quantum plan for the first time.
Tencent began to deploy quantum science in 2017. Ge Ling, PhD in quantum computing from Oxford University, joined Tencent as the chief representative of Tencent Europe.
In 2018, Professor Zhang Shengyu, a well-known quantum theory computer scientist at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, joined Tencent and established Tencent Quantum Lab. In the same year, Tencent proposed the "ABC2.0" plan (AI, Robotics, Quantum Computing).
Tencent is conducting related research in application areas such as quantum AI, drug development and scientific computing platform (SimHub).
In March 2018, Baidu established the Quantum Research Institute, and Professor Duan Runyao, the founding director of the Quantum Software and Information Center of the University of Technology Sydney, served as the director. The research institute focuses on the research and development of quantum algorithms, quantum AI applications, and quantum architecture. It develops quantum computing platforms and connects with different quantum hardware systems through flexible and efficient quantum hardware interfaces, and finally outputs quantum computing in the form of cloud computing. ability.
At the 2019 Developer Conference, Baidu released the high-performance quantum pulse computing system "Quantity Pulse".
In May of this year, Baidu released the first quantum machine learning development tool in China, "Paddle Quantum." In September, Baidu released the newly upgraded Baidu Brain 6.0, which includes the country’s first cloud-native quantum The computing platform "Quantity Yifu" realizes the deep integration of quantum computing and cloud computing.
Weng Wenkang announced in 2018 to join the Huawei Data Center Technology Laboratory. The main research directions of the laboratory include quantum computing physics and manipulation, quantum software, quantum algorithms and applications, etc. In the same year, Huawei announced the quantum computing simulator HiQ 1.0 cloud service platform for the first time.
In 2019, HiQ was upgraded to 2.0. A single Kunlun quantum computing and simulation machine can achieve full-amplitude simulation of 40 qubits, and single vibration simulation of up to 144 qubits (22 layers).
In September of this year, HiQ was upgraded to 3.0.
5. Hon Hai Group
Foxconn’s parent company established the Hon Hai Research Institute in March this year and invited Zhang Qingrui, a distinguished professor of physics at National Taiwan University, to be the leader of the quantum computer project and start the quantum computing layout.
Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company ( TSMC ) is some of the top hardware manufacturers in the technology industry. In 2018, it plans to cooperate with the Taiwan Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) to create a cloud quantum computing platform based on IBMQ.
7. National shield quantum
Guodeng Quantum was founded in 2009, originated from the University of Science and Technology of China, led by Pan Jianwei, Executive Vice President of the University of Science and Technology of China. National Shield Quantum mainly develops in the field of quantum communication and is now a manufacturer of quantum communication equipment and a supplier of quantum security solutions. In July of this year, Guodong Quantum (stock code: 688027) was officially listed on the Science and Technology Innovation Board, making it the first A-share listed company in the field of quantum communications in China.
2. Research institutes
1. Chinese Academy of Sciences
In 2017, Alibaba and the Chinese Academy of Sciences launched a quantum computing cloud platform.
In December 2019, the Chinese Academy of Sciences released isQ, China's first quantum programming platform.
Quantum satellite is one of the leading space science projects of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. It was led by Academician Pan Jianwei. The project was established in 2011. After five years of research preparation, it was launched in 2016 and became the world's first satellite for quantum science experiments. In 2017, the Micius successfully realized two quantum entangled photons. After being distributed to a distance of more than 1,200 kilometers, they can still maintain their quantum entanglement state. June, CAS No. achieved using Mo one thousand kilometers without repeaters entanglement based quantum protect secret communication.
2. University of Science and Technology of China
In 2017, the team of Academician Guo Guangcan of the University of Science and Technology of China, Chuanfeng Li and Guoyong Xiang's research group cooperated with Fudan University, Beijing Institute of Technology, and Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications to achieve the world's most efficient quantum state tomography measurement, which was published in the international authoritative journal Nature Communications. In the same year, the Pan Jianwei team of the University of Science and Technology of China successfully realized topological data analysis on the optical quantum processor.
In 2019, the University of Science and Technology of China developed 24 superconducting qubit processors.
In March of this year, Essence Quantum and the University of Science and Technology of China made important progress in the coherent manipulation of phonon modes of nano-resonators.
3. Tsinghua University
In 2011, Yao Qizhi founded the Center for Quantum Information (CQI) of Tsinghua University.
In 2017, Jin Qihuan, Associate Professor of the Quantum Information Center of the Institute of Interdisciplinary Information, Tsinghua University, led the ion trap quantum computing research group to achieve single-qubit storage with a coherence time of more than 10 minutes. The results have been published in "Nature-Photonics". In the same year, Tsinghua University released the world's first nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computing cloud platform.
In April 2018, Professor Duan Luming's research group from the Institute of Interdisciplinary Information Research at Tsinghua University published a study titled "Experimental Implementation of Entanglement between 25 Independently Controlled Quantum Interfaces" in the journal Science Development. paper. In the same year, Shing-Tung Yau Mathematical Sciences Center and assistant professor of Jinlong Dyatlo Semyon v teach teach cooperation paper "double-face semi-classical songs with a full measure of support set" (Semiclassical measures on hyperbolic surfaces have full support) in the top international mathematics journal "Acta Mathematica" ( "Journal of Mathematics") published online. The results of this paper are of great significance for understanding quantum chaotic systems.
4. Beijing Institute of Quantum Information Science
In December 2017, the Beijing Municipal Government and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Academy of Military Sciences, Peking University, Tsinghua University, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics and other units jointly established the Beijing Institute of Quantum Information Science. Xue Qikun, academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and vice president of Tsinghua University, served as the dean.
5. Shanghai Quantum Center
In June 2019, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Shanghai Municipal People's Government jointly established the Shanghai Quantum Science Research Center.
6. Nanjing University
In July 2019, Nanjing University developed the world's first unmanned quantum communication network, using drones as a transit station for quantum transmission. On June 26, Wang Shuming, Zhang Lijian, Wang Zhenlin, Zhu Shining and other collaborators of the State Key Laboratory of Solid State Microstructure Physics of NTU and the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and the University of Science and Technology of China made research results based on " High-dimensional quantum entanglement and multiphoton light source based on meta- lens array" The topic was published in the latest issue of "Science" magazine.
7. Nanjing Xianyangjian Quantum Computer Research Institute
Nanjing Xianyangjian Quantum Computer Research Institute was established in 2018. It is a state-owned state-owned enterprise jointly invested and established by the State Key Laboratory of Solid Microstructure Physics and the State Key Laboratory of Computer Software New Technology of Nanjing University. Capital holdings of research institutions.
8. Zhejiang University
In 2018, Zhejiang University launched the Quantum Project. In August 2019, Zhejiang University, the Institute of Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Automation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the Beijing Computing Science Research Center jointly developed a quantum chip with 20 superconducting qubits. The research results were published in the journal Science.
9. Institute of Quantum Science and Engineering , Southern University of Science and Technology
The Institute of Quantum Science and Engineering of Southern University of Science and Technology was established in 2017 and relies on Southern University of Science and Technology. The first dean of the Institute was Professor Yu Dapeng, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Third, entrepreneurial companies
1. The original quantum
Origin Quantum was established in 2017, relying on the Key Laboratory of Quantum Information of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, led by academician Guo Guangcan and Professor Guo Guoping, two leaders in the quantum computing industry. The goal of creation is the development of full-stack quantum computing, directly against foreign quantum computing companies IBM, Rigetti, etc., and its main business covers quantum chips, quantum measurement and control, quantum software, quantum clouds and future quantum applications.
In terms of quantum chips, Yuanyuan has developed the first-generation semiconductor 2-bit quantum processor Xuanwei XW B2-100, and the first-generation superconducting 6-bit Kuafu quantum processor KF C6-130. In the field of quantum measurement and control, Origin has successfully developed the first domestic quantum computer control system-OriginQ Quantum AIO, the first-generation quantum measurement and control integrated machine. In terms of quantum software, Yuanyuan developed the first set of quantum language standards in China, QRunes, and developed the first domestic quantum programming framework QPanda (a composite architecture of quantum language and compiler), the first domestic quantum computing application framework pyQPanda, and the first domestic quantum Program development plug-in Qurator-VSCode. In the field of quantum cloud, Origin has developed a free experience platform for quantum computing based on 32-bit quantum virtual machines. The original superconducting quantum computing cloud platform, which was launched in September 2020, is connected to the 6-bit superconducting quantum chip "Kuafu" based on real physical systems. The quantum computer assembled from this 6-bit quantum chip is named "Wuyuan" (another quantum computer based on semiconductor technology that has not yet been released is named "Wumoto").
Recently, in the global quantum computing technology invention patent rankings released by the intellectual property industry media IPRdaily and the incoPat Innovation Index Research Center, Origin Quantum ranked 7th with 77 patents, and the top 6 were IBM, D-Wave, Google, Microsoft, Northrop Grumman, Intel.
2. Guoyi Quantum
Guoyi Quantum originated from the Key Laboratory of Micromagnetic Resonance, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, led by Academician Du Jiangfeng. With quantum precision measurement as its core technology, Guoyi Quantum provides high-end equipment and services.
In April 2019, Guoyi Quantum launched the diamond quantum computing teaching machine, which is mainly used for quantum computing experiment teaching. Its design qubit number is 2 qubits and can work at room temperature.
3. Qike Quantum
The core personnel of Qike Quantum led the development of the world's first commercialized quantum communication system Navajo in 2003, and has continuously developed a total of four generations of commercialized quantum communication systems. At present, while operating the domestic market, the company is also actively expanding overseas markets. In terms of quantum computing, Qike Quantum led the research and development of the world's first quantum computing measurement and control system in 2015. It is expected to complete the "Tian Shou No. 1" ion trap scalable distributed quantum computer within 2 to 3 years, with up to 100 controllable qubits.
4. Wentian Quantum
In September of this year, Wentian Quantum released the quantum education cloud platform, which is mainly for people interested in quantum, providing an ecological community of quantum learning, and related solutions, and providing virtual simulation software Qsim and Qlab cloud platforms.
5. Measuring Spin Technology
In October this year, Liangxuan Technology released the latest generation of universal quantum cloud platform "Taurus". The platform has been connected to a 2-qubit and a 4-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computer. The connected nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computer is named "Gemini", which is very small and can run at room temperature.
In addition, more and more universities, research institutes and enterprises such as Yaguang Technology, China Quantum , National Science and Technology University, Haofeng Technology, etc. have begun to enter this track to deploy quantum computing or conduct related scientific research and business activities.
On the whole, compared with the United States, my country’s technology companies are late in their deployment in the field of quantum computing. In recent years, they have established laboratories through cooperation with scientific research institutes or hiring well-known scientists. However, many of them are still in the exploratory stage and have not entered industrialization. Compared with the advanced level, there is still a big gap.
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